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This article is Part Two in exploring Senior Cat Care, a follow-up to April's information on diet and exercise for senior cats. Part Two will give you tips on how to optimize your senior cat's environment and important information on senior illnesses and palliative care. See Part One especially for the definition of "senior".
Senior Cat Care, Beyond Food and Water
Right now, Bogey is still pretty much at the top of his scratching post. He's got the benefit of a good diet, lots of exercise with all his toys, and the knowledge that his little world really does revolve around him.

Many cats will go on like this well into their teens, still spry and playful with a good appetite and a good attitude, perhaps just sleeping a little more and losing a little muscle mass even with regular exercise. But just like humans, other cats will begin to deteriorate at a younger age, or will develop chronic or terminal illnesses. And because many of us have rescued our companions from a life on the streets, many will bear the marks of that early deprivation, well enough when young, but with increasing difficulty as they age.

Somehow, the favorite chair is a little higher than it was last year, it's hard to lean down to the food bowl, those steps to the litter box in the basement are pretty scary and she'll never get up on the bed without assistance again, it's just too tall. Just as cats will adapt to or hide physical illnesses, so will they adapt to these growing daily challenges of aging. You'll think perhaps Tiger doesn't like that food, or wonder that suddenly he has developed terrible litter box habits and doesn't want to sleep with you any more.

As you would if you thought your Tiger was ill, observe the changes to his habits and do your best to determine the cause. Does he sit on the floor and look longingly up on the chair or the bed? Does he head for the stairs and not go down, or have obvious physical difficulty negotiating them? Give him a little assistance in the form of a foot stool or step stool next to the chair or bed and see if he still likes to sleep there. Consider purchasing raised dishes for his food and water. And even though you may not like a litter box in the living room, Tiger may be very appreciative and use it diligently, which will keep you both very happy. An attractive covered box with odor control features may work just fine on the main floor of your home.

Eyes and ears can begin to fail in older cats, too, and Tiger can become disoriented easily if furniture is moved without a reintroduction to the room. If he's got a favorite sleeping spot, try to maintain it through a remodel. He may also need a few extra hollers if you call him for dinner, too. Also, consider a night light here and there to light Tiger's way around the house. If he starts to wander around the house and yowl, some affection and sweet words from you can help to reorient him and provide him with reassurance.

Encourage activity as long as possible, as this will help circulation, joint flexibility, weight, appetite and elimination. Consider also products designed for seniors that will help in these areas, such as Cat Sure and Joint Health

Our senior cat Bogey also loves some green in his diet, so we grow grass for him and have it accessible to him on the floor of our main living area. This helps him to maintain a clean digestive tract.

And just as older people tend to be less adaptable with temperature changes, try to keep a warm spot available at all times for an old cat to curl up in when it's cold, and a cool spot in the summer. For extra warmth and padding for those old bones, what cat wouldn't like a Woolies igloo or cat bed

These conveniences will help your senior cat remain independent for as long as possible.

In a body that doesn't move as well or digest as well, consider the rigors of bathing. Tiger may not be able to reach all his areas and may develop knots or mats in his fur, even if he is short-haired, or a rash or flaking skin where he can't clean the oils as he used to. As he ages, or with certain physical conditions, he may shed more, and constipation is a concern in older cats, often exacerbated by fur from grooming. Brush or comb him all over, especially in areas he may not be able to reach-he'll really appreciate that, and the regular working of his skin will help to keep it clean

Get to know the big three benchmarks in Tiger's daily life: activity, appetite and weight. Note any change in these three, especially if it happens over a short period of time and if it involves more than one indicator. Tiger may slow down as he ages, but if he just quits doing things he formerly enjoyed, like playing with a certain toy or starts sleeping more or in a completely different place than usual, he may be dealing with a chronic illness. If he suddenly loses interest in his favorite food or food in general, or starts losing weight despite his appetite, observe him carefully and make an appointment with your veterinarian for an exam and tests. Remember that your veterinarian will need your observations for a complete diagnosis.

The most common diseases in older cats are kidney and liver failure, diabetes, hyperthyroidism, anemia and cancer. The list needn't be as frightening as it sounds-with early detection, a good diet and palliative care, these diseases can be cured or managed for more years of a good life. Along with the recommended twice-yearly exam by a veterinarian, observe your cat's food and water consumption, and note any changes in behavior.

Increased activity level and a ravenous appetite with weight loss can indicate hyperthyroidism. Very common in older cats it is easily managed with medication if it is simply an overactive thyroid, but can also be successfully treated if it is caused by a thyroid tumor. A complete diagnosis is made with a physical exam of the thyroid and a blood test to check for thyroid hormone.

Those symptoms can also indicate diabetes, along with frequent urination, which is diagnosed with a blood test and urinalysis. Many senior cat owners have managed the daily glucose test, insulin shot and dietary changes and been able to enjoy their cat's company for years beyond the diagnosis.

An increase in water consumption along with a decreased appetite and occasional vomiting can mean kidney failure, also diagnosed with a blood test. It can't be cured, but can be treated over the long term with dietary changes and hydration-even after all that water is consumed, Tiger can still be dehydrated because his kidneys are not functioning as well as they could be. Regular doses of subcutaneous fluids, often daily, will help Tiger's kidneys continue to filter the body's fluids, another treatment that can be done at home.

Cancer can be obvious in a highly visible growth, but can also be hidden inside, evidenced only by decreasing activity and appetite and weight loss. Many cancers can be treated without surgery, as surgery would be a last resort for an older cat, and treatment can keep it under control for suite some time.

While many of the environmental changes can be considered "palliative", this really refers to actions you take or treatments you give that help his body function normally or may simply make Tiger feel better. Dehydration is not uncommon, even when no chronic condition is present, as the body simply slows down. Regular application of subcutaneous fluids can help your cat fight diseases and simply feel better.

And beyond anything else you might do, it's vitally important that you constantly give them affection, remind them how much they mean to you. The unfortunate truth is that cats only live a brief span of years compared to us, and that we're likely to outlive them. However, if we commit some thought and some time to their senior care, we can certainly prolong their lives and provide for their comfort. After all, they have been our constant companions, offering unconditional love over many years. They deserve our special attention now, in their "sunset" years.

Online sources:
Cat Fancy
Other sources include "CatWatch," the newsletter from the Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine and "Catnip", the newsletter from the Tufts University School of Veterinary Medicine.
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